Author Archive


Bibliographic Database of the Conservation Information Network (BCIN):

Books, articles and other bibliographic materials on conservation, preservation and restoration of cultural heritage

We are collecting material from members and others relating previous CIF activities or work, please send us any material you have: Thank you in advance!

Guidelines for Education and training in the conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and Sites (1993)

The General Assembly of the International Council on Monuments and Sites, ICOMOS, meeting in Colombo, Sri Lanka, at its tenth session from July 30 to August 7, 1993;

Considering the breadth of the heritage encompassed within the concept of monuments, ensembles and sites;

Considering the great variety of actions and treatments required for the conservation of these heritage resources, and the necessity of a common discipline for their guidance;

Recognizing that many different professions need to collaborate within the common discipline of conservation in the process and require proper education and training in order to guarantee good communication and coordinated action in conservation;

Noting the Venice Charter and related ICOMOS doctrine, and the need to provide a reference for the institutions and bodies involved in developing training programmes, and to assist in defining and building up appropriate standards and criteria suitable to meet the specific cultural and technical requirements in each community or region;

Adopts the following guidelines, and Recommends that they be diffused for the information of appropriate institutions, organizations and authorities.


1. The aim of this document is to promote the establishment of standards and guidelines for education and training in the conservation of monuments, groups of buildings (“ensembles”) and sites defined as cultural heritage by the World Heritage Convention of 1972. They include historic buildings, historic areas and towns, archaeological sites, and the contents therein, as well as historic and cultural landscapes. Their conservation is now, and will continue to be a matter of urgency.


2. Conservation of cultural heritage is now recognized as resting within the general field of environmental and cultural development. Sustainable management strategies for change which respect cultural heritage require the integration of conservation attitudes with contemporary economic and social goals including tourism.

3. The object of conservation is to prolong the life of cultural heritage and, if possible, to clarify the artistic and historical messages therein without the loss of authenticity and meaning. Conservation is a cultural, artistic, technical and craft activity based on humanistic and scientific studies and systematic research. Conservation must respect the cultural context.


4. There is a need to develop a holistic approach to our heritage on the basis of cultural pluralism and diversity, respected by professionals, craftspersons and administrators. Conservation requires the ability to observe, analyze and synthesize. The conservationist should have a flexible yet pragmatic approach based on cultural consciousness which should penetrate all practical work, proper education and training, sound judgement and a sense of proportion with an understanding of the community’s needs. Many professional and craft skills are involved in this interdisciplinary activity.

5. Conservation works should only be entrusted to persons competent in these specialist activities. Education and training for conservation should produce from a range of professionals, conservationists who are able to:

  1. read a monument, ensemble or site and identify its emotional, cultural and use significance;
  2. understand the history and technology of monuments, ensembles or sites in order to define their identity, plan for their conservation, and interpret the results of this research;
  3. understand the setting of a monument, ensemble or site, their contents and surroundings, in relation to other buildings, gardens or landscapes;
  4. find and absorb all available sources of information relevant to the monument, ensemble or site being studied;
  5. understand and analyze the behaviour of monuments, ensembles and sites as complex systems;
  6. diagnose intrinsic and extrinsic causes of decay as a basis for appropriate action;
  7. inspect and make reports intelligible to non-specialist readers of monuments, ensembles or sites, illustrated by graphic means such as sketches and photographs;
  8. know, understand and apply Unesco conventions and recommendations, and ICOMOS and other recognized Charters, regulations and guidelines;
  9. make balanced judgements based on shared ethical principles, and accept responsibility for the long-term welfare of cultural heritage;
  10. recognize when advice must be sought and define the areas of need of study by different specialists, e.g. wall paintings, sculpture and objects of artistic and historical value, and/or studies of materials and systems;
  11. give expert advice on maintenance strategies, management policies and the policy framework for environmental protection and preservation of monuments and their contents, and sites;
  12. document works executed and make same accessible;
  13. work in multi-disciplinary groups using sound methods;
  14. be able to work with inhabitants, administrators and planners to resolve conflicts and to develop conservation strategies appropriate to local needs, abilities and resources;


6. There is a need to impart knowledge of conservation attitudes and approaches to all those who may have a direct or indirect impact on cultural property.

7. The practice of conservation is interdisciplinary; it therefore follows that courses should also be multidisciplinary. Professionals, including academics and specialized craftspersons, who have already received their normal qualification will need further training in order to become conservationists; equally those who seek to act competently in historic environment.

8. Conservationists should ensure that all artisans and staff working on a monument, ensemble or site respect its significance.

9. Training in disaster preparedness and in methods of mitigating damage to cultural property, by strengthening and improving fire prevention and other security measures, should be included in courses.

10. Traditional crafts are a valuable cultural resource. Craftspersons, already with high level manual skills, should be further trained for conservation work with instruction in the history of their craft, historic details and practices, and the theory of conservation with the need for documentation. Many historic skills will have to be recorded and revived.


11. Many satisfactory methods of achieving the required education and training are possible. Variations will depend on traditions and legislation, as well as on administrative and economic context of each cultural region. The active exchange of ideas and opinions on new approaches to education and training between national institutes and at international levels should be encouraged. Collaborative network of individuals and institutions is essential to the success of this exchange.

12. Education and sensitization for conservation should begin in schools and continue in universities and beyond. These institutions have an important role in raising visual and cultural awareness – improving ability to read and understand the elements of our cultural heritage – and giving the cultural preparation needed by candidates for specialist education and training. Practical hands-on training in craft work should be encouraged.

13. Courses for continuing professional development can enlarge on the initial education and training of professionals. Long-term, part-time courses are a valuable method for advanced teaching, and useful in major population centres. Short courses can enlarge attitudes, but cannot teach skills or impart profound understanding of conservation. They can help introduce concepts and techniques of conservation in the management of the built and natural environment and the objects within it.

14. Participants in specialist courses should be of a high calibre normally having had appropriate education and training and practical working experience. Specialist courses should be multidisciplinary with core subjects for all participants, and optional subjects to extend capacities and/or to fill the gaps in previous education and training. To complete the education and training of a conservationist an internship is recommended to give practical experience.

15. Every country or regional group should be encouraged to develop at least one comprehensively organized institute giving education and training and specialist courses. It may take decades to establish a fully competent conservation service. Special short-term measures may therefore be required, including the grafting of new initiatives onto existing programmes in order to lead to fully developed new programmes. National, regional and international exchange of teachers, experts and students should be encouraged. Regular evaluation of conservation training programmes by peers is a necessity.


16. Resources needed for specialist courses may include e.g.:

  1. an adequate number of participants of required level ideally in the range of 15 to 25;
  2. a full-time co-ordinator with sufficient administrative support;
  3. instructors with sound theoretical knowledge and practical experience in conservation and teaching ability;
  4. fully equipped facilities including lecture space with audio-visual equipment, video, etc. studios, laboratories, workshops, seminar rooms, and staff offices;
  5. library and documentation centre providing reference collections, facilities for coordinating research, and access to computerized information networks;
  6. a range of monuments, ensembles and sites within a reasonable radius.

17. Conservation depends upon documentation adequate for understanding of monuments, ensembles or sites and their respective settings. Each country should have an institute for research and archive for recording its cultural heritage and all conservation works related thereto. The course should work within the archive responsibilities identified at the national level.

18. Funding for teaching fees and subsistence may need special arrangements for mid-career participants as they may already have personal responsibilities.

CIF Webinars

ICOMOS CIF has organized a series of webinars to discuss education in architectural conservation and to feature some of the professional profiles and competences related to architectural and urban conservation.

Conservation Engineering: Philosophy, Design and Technology

16th June 2021

Preservation in Historic Areas of Spain: Panorama of a Shifting Paradigm

24 February 2021

The Emerging New Paradigm in Conservation Education and the Power of Place: is there replacement for site experience?

11th September 2020

Improvisation and Planning in Architectural Conservation Teaching and Learning: Experiences of Online versus Face-to-Face so far

28th August 2020


(The ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Education and Training)

By-Laws approved by ICOMOS Board on March 2022

1. Establishment

The International Scientific Committee on Education and Training (hereinafter referred to as “the Committee” or “CIF”) is established in accordance with:

  • The ICOMOS Statutes adopted at the 18th General Assembly in Florence, in November 2014;
  • the Ethical Principles adopted in Florence, November 2014;
  • the Rules of Procedure of the International Council on Monuments and Sites adopted pursuant to the ICOMOS Statutes;
  • the Eger Xi’an Principles 2008;
  • the Malta Guidelines for ISC’s 2009;
  • and the Dubrovnik Valetta Principles 2010.

These By-Laws are consistent in their definitions, aims activities and actions with those of ICOMOS as expressed in Articles 3 and 4 of the ICOMOS Statutes.

2.  Aims

The ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Education and Training (CIF) researches and promotes international cooperation in the field of education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes. It works on the advancement of greater understanding of such heritage, and the appropriate approaches, intervention criteria, technologies and management for its conservation, and to advise on the development of ICOMOS programs in this field.

3. Activities

3.1 The Committee shall accomplish its objectives by providing a forum for the interchange of experience, ideas, knowledge, and the results of different research between policy makers, educators, trainers, trainees and researchers, by engaging in the following activities:

a) Research on education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes;

b) Promotion and dissemination of information about existing training programs;

c) Developing scientific cooperation by creating links with schools, centres, committees and international organizations involved in conservation training and education

d) Encouragement of knowledge and understanding of training and education in subjects related to built heritage, urban and landscape conservation;

e) Fostering the gathering and sharing of diverse professional experience and knowledge and developing guidance for ICOMOS on education and training, considering cultural diversity and sensitivities and in cooperation with other ICOMOS Scientific and National Committees

f) Fostering awareness-raising, appreciation and interpretation of heritage through education and training;

g) Supporting capacity building in the education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes;

h) Addressing the needs of new Affiliate Members and Emerging Professionals in developing their specialisation and competence in education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes.

3.2 These aims shall be included and detailed in the ISC Triennial Work Plan which the Committee shall prepare to coincide with each General Assembly of ICOMOS.  

4. Membership

4.1 The Committee shall be composed of Expert Members, and Affiliate members. The Committee shall seek to reflect, in its membership and Bureau, regional and cultural diversity in the available expertise in the field of education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes;

4.2 The Committee may, if it wishes, (but is not obliged to) appoint Institutional Members;

4.3 The Committee may, if it wishes, (but is not obliged to) appoint Honorary Members.

4.4 The Committee may, if it wishes, following a decision of the majority of the Expert Members, invite a non-ICOMOS Member, who can make a significant contribution to the meetings and activities of the Committee, to participate in its activities. Invited members will be encouraged to apply for ICOMOS membership and will be accorded no voting rights.

4.5 Applications relating to all categories of membership must be sent to CIF with a copy for information to the applicant’s National Committee, or where none exists to the International Secretariat.

4.6 The Committee shall adopt minimum Criteria for Admission and a transparent and well understood methodology for assessing and verifying individual competencies and expertise of applicants.

4.7 In the event of an application for membership being refused by this Scientific Committee an applicant shall have a right of appeal to the ICOMOS Board (Article 14(b) ICOMOS Statutes).

4.8 The rights and duties of Members shall be as follows:

  • Expert Members

a) ICOMOS Members experienced and engaged in the areas relevant to the objectives of the Committee may apply for Expert Membership, either upon personal application or by proposal of the National Committee to which they belong;

b) Expert Members shall be accepted based on their individual profile, in particular their knowledge of and / or associations with education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes. All Expert Members must be members of ICOMOS and may remain members so long as they are ICOMOS members and meet the International Scientific Committee’s (ISC) criteria for participation.

c) Expert Members have the right to participate in any aspect of the work of the Committee.

d) Each National Committee should designate one Expert Member as its voting member. The representative of an Institutional Member may not be designated by a National Committee as a voting member.

e) Only the individual Expert Members designated by National Committees as voting members, may vote at elections of the Committee’s Bureau or concerning the amendment of its By-Laws.

f)  When voting on any issues and decisions, other than the election of the Bureau or amendment of the Committee’s By-Laws, all Expert Members, shall have a vote.

(2) Affiliate Members

a) ICOMOS Members interested in gaining knowledge and building up expertise in areas relevant to the objectives of the Committee may apply for Affiliate Membership, either upon personal application or proposal by the National Committee to which they belong;

b) Affiliate Members shall be accepted in unlimited number. They are conditionally accepted for a period of three years, after which time their contribution to the Committee will be evaluated in a transparent manner.

The Affiliate Membership shall then be:

i. Extended for another similar period of time, with a maximum of two such triennial extensions, or

ii. Upgraded to Expert Membership, or

iii. Rejected on the basis of non-participation or unsatisfactory performance;

c) The Committee will strive to incorporate Affiliate Members participation in its work;

d) Affiliate Members do not have voting rights.

e) When appropriate an ISC may ask a National Committee to designate one or more Affiliate Members to help build up particular expertise in countries where such a need exists.

  • Institutional Members:

a) When in the interests of ICOMOS and of CIF and at CIF’s discretion, the category of Institutional Membership may be established

b) The Expert Members of CIF may opt to invite an Institution to become an Institutional Member of the Committee for one triennium, and the membership may be renewed indefinitely for additional three-year periods.

c) An Institutional member may designate from its staff one person with the required qualifications to be its representative and spokesperson in the Committee.

d) Institutional Members do not have voting rights.

  • Honorary Members

a) Honorary Members may be elected by the Expert Members of CIF  and may participate in all activities of the Committee.

b) They need not be members of ICOMOS and are appointed in recognition of the services and/or in recognition of outstanding achievement in the field covered by the aims and activities of CIF.

c) Honorary members who are not Expert Members have no voting rights.

d) Honorary Members may use the title: “Honorary Member, CIF”;

5. The Bureau

5.1 Shall be elected by the Expert Members with voting rights and shall comprise a President, two Vice Presidents, a Secretary, and, if necessary, a Treasurer. Only Expert Members can be elected to the Bureau.

5.2 Members of the Bureau should represent different countries and key regions and different cultural approaches to religion and ritual, wherever possible.

5.3  The role and responsibilities of each Bureau member will be specified and agreed upon by the Bureau, which as a whole shall lead and guide the work of CIF, ensure good governance, represent CIF within ICOMOS and outside, while acting in the best interests of and maintaining regular contact with its membership.

5.4  The term of office for the Bureau shall be three years and members shall be eligible for re-election for a maximum of two more consecutive terms.

5.5  The Bureau shall be elected at the end of each three-year mandate. Prior elections can be undertaken in cases of resignation.

5.6  Elections shall be conducted by Expert Members, appointed by their National Committees as voting members, through secret ballot, at an annual meeting with provision for proxies, or by postal and electronic means. If an election is held by postal and/or electronic means, votes should be collected by an independent third party agreed upon by all candidates. If no agreement on an independent third party can be reached, the officers of the Scientific Council shall be asked to collect the votes. Elections for officers shall be verifiable.

5.7  If no candidates are nominated for election of a post, Expert Members appointed by their National Committees as voting members, shall meet in closed session, either in presence or via electronic conferencing, to encourage the nomination of candidates. Such meetings shall be repeated every 10 days until nominations have been declared for all offices.

5.8  The Bureau of the Committee shall:

a) Register Members to the Committee

b) Register Expert Voting Members nominated by National Committees to the Committee;

c) May wish to withdraw the membership of any Expert Member, or Affiliate Member if s/he has been found not to have complied with the criteria for participation in relation to the work of the Committee as set out by these By-Laws; Should the Bureau wish to withdraw the membership of any Expert Member, or Affiliate Member, the Bureau must inform the National or Transnational Committee of that Member (or the Bureau of ICOMOS if this ICOMOS member is from a country where there is no National Committee).

     Any Member of an ISC affected by the ruling of the Bureau or by a ruling of a National Committee may make a full appeal to the Board of ICOMOS.”

d) Members who have been removed from the rolls of the Committee may reapply for membership certifying their intent to participate actively in the future.

e) Convene the Committee meetings in designated locations or via conference calls or other technologies;

f)  Implement the Committee decisions;

g) Prepare the Committee’s Draft Guidelines for communication, election and reporting for approval by the Committee.

h) Prepare an Annual Report to be submitted to CIF Members and to the Scientific Council of ICOMOS for their consideration and approval. The Scientific Council will advise International Scientific Committees of the required format and content of the annual report. The annual report must contain as a minimum:

1) The names and contact details of the President and Secretary of the Committee

2) The number of Committee members in the current and previous year

3) A summary of the Committee’s activities for the past year, including in particular its annual meeting and any conferences or publications.

i)  Prepare a triennial work plan, including aims and objectives

j)  At least one Bureau member must subscribe to the Scientific Council’s listserv.

k) The Bureau shall provide the Scientific Council with any additional data or information requested by them, so as to enable them to carry out their annual performance review effectively.

l) The Bureau shall provide the Scientific Council with information concerning any involvement the Committee may have in World Heritage Nominations, as well as identifying individual members involved in such work.

m) The Bureau may receive advice and guidance from the Scientific Council

n) The Bureau shall ensure that duties of maintaining the archival record and institutional memory of the Committee are allocated appropriately and that appropriate information is disseminated to all members of CIF.

o) The Bureau shall make provision for a Website for CIF and if necessary, a List-Serve.

6.  Functions

The Committee shall:

6.1 Provide a platform for exchange of ideas and dissemination of information on education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes;

6.2 Provide technical advice on education and training for the understanding, protection, conservation and management of built heritage, historic sites and cultural landscapes;

6.3 Prepare or study doctrinal texts where appropriate and inform the International Secretariat where a text is being prepared.

6.4 Approve and perform each Triennial Work Plan, under By-law 5(8)(i),

6.5  Form sub-committees, task forces and/or working groups whenever necessary to perform certain tasks which will enable CIF to fulfil its objectives.

6.6 Try as far as reasonably possible to make technological provision for members to participate remotely in proceedings where it is not possible for them to attend in person.

6.7  The Committee may prepare and submit nominations for Honorary Membership prior to a General Assembly in the appropriate format and in the requisite timescale.

6.8 The Committee may become involved in the preparation of Resolution(s) in advance of a General Assembly in conjunction with other ISC’s.

7. Emerging Professionals

7.1   An Emerging Professional means an individual member of ICOMOS who has under 15 years of professional education and experience.

7.2 Emerging Professional are recognised within ICOMOS to maintain scientific relevance for future generations and to secure intergenerational engagement to secure the organisation’s continuity.

7.3 An Emerging Professional may be an Expert Member or an Affiliate Member and in this regard shall have the same rights and obligations that accorded to each of those types of membership.

7.4 The Committee shall encourage Emerging Professional to join its work and strive towards achieving a 20% composition of Emerging Professional Members within the Committee.

7.5 When appropriate an ISC may ask a National Committee to designate one or more Emerging Professionals to help build up the particular expertise in countries where such a need exists.

8.  Criteria for participation

8.1 The Committee shall adopt minimum criteria for participation as a means of gauging levels of engagement by Expert and Affiliated members.

8.2 Active participation shall mean attendance at Committee meetings and Symposia, submission of papers or responses to questionnaires in lieu of personal attendance at symposia, undertaking projects on behalf of the Committee at the request of the Bureau, representing the Committee in an official capacity before other bodies, or making substantial contributions to the work of a subcommittee or task group of the Committee.

8.3 Should an Expert, or Affiliate Member not attend three consecutive Annual Meetings of the Committee and its Symposia without due cause, and over the same period not demonstrate active participation, the Bureau may decide to withdraw the membership of the Expert or Affiliate Member.

9 Triennial Reviews of the work of International Scientific Committees

9.1 The Committee and its Bureau shall assist the Triennial Review of its work by the appointees of the Scientific Council under the Eger Xian Principles and the Malta Guidelines, including provision of additional data or interim reports to allow the review to be carried out effectively.

9.2 The Committee must implement any necessary measures based on recommendations of the Triennial Review, if agreed by the Scientific Council, the Advisory Committee or the Board of ICOMOS, or show good reason why this should not be done.

9.3 Cases of persistent non-compliance by this Committee in the Triennial Review Process may be referred to the Board of ICOMOS by the Scientific Council or the Advisory Committee for corrective action as it is only for the Board of ICOMOS to decide whether to endorse the activities of or to dissolve an ISC.

10. Co-operation with other bodies

In pursuance of its aims, the Committee will co-operate with:

International Scientific Committees and National Committees of ICOMOS; and

ICOMOS partner organizations and international bodies aiming at achieving what is stipulated in the aims and activities of the Committee. In this regard, such partnership arrangements will require the approval of the majority of the Expert Members.

11. Meetings

11.1 The Committee shall meet as often as is necessary to conduct its business and must meet at least once a year for its scientific and administrative agenda. It may hold a maximum of two (2) Extraordinary General Meetings should the need arise.

11.2 If the Committee meets more than once in any year it must designate one of those meetings as its Annual General Meeting. Meetings are either in a designated location or – following a decision by its membership – organized as conference calls or via other technological means.

11.3 In these meetings, members may vote in accordance with clauses 4.8 (1) (e) and 4.8 (1) (f) of these By-Laws. All decisions are decided by a simple majority unless specified otherwise in these By-Laws. Electronic consultations leading to decisions may also be invoked and decisions made in such consultations shall be considered valid. Electronic votes of Expert Members in webcasts (or comparable technologies) shall be considered valid.

11.4 The minutes of meetings of the Committee shall be signed by the President and put on record by the International Secretariat, as provided for in the ICOMOS Statutes.

11.5 The Committee shall address their annual activity report and their work programmes for the next year to the International Secretariat, for opinion of the Advisory Committee and approval by the Board of ICOMOS, as provided for in the ICOMOS Statutes.

12. Finances

12.1 The activities of the Committee shall be financed by funds:

a) allocated by ICOMOS from its annual budget,

b) obtained by the Committee from international and national organizations including ICOMOS National Committees,

c) obtained by the Committee on its own initiative such as income from publications, and

d) from any other source provided by way of gift, bequest, donation or sponsorship.

e) The ISC may ask its members for voluntary contributions to its funds but such contributions shall not be a condition of membership.

12.2 Members of the Committee are generally expected to obtain the funds necessary to ensure their participation in its activities, in particular their presence at the meetings.

12.3 The Committee cannot open a bank account in its name;

12.4 The Committee cannot keep funds of the ISC in a personal account. A special account may be set up by the ICOMOS International Secretariat for this Committee as required.

12.5 Should this ISC have an association with a partner organisation, its funds must be held either by ICOMOS or the partner organisation.

12.6 This ISC will designate a contact person who may liaise with the ICOMOS Accountant at the International Secretariat if necessary.

i. For incoming payments that designated contact person should inform the ICOMOS Accountant of a payment which is due so that it can be clearly identified and attributed to the appropriate ISC account.

ii. For outgoing payments that designated contact person may send the International Secretariat the invoices that the Committee wishes to settle out of its funds or the bank details for electronic transfers together with information about the purpose of the payment.

iii. The ICOMOS Accountant may prepare the operation for signature by two from the following the ICOMOS Director General, one of the directors, and the ICOMOS Accountant.

iv. The International Secretariat will provide the designated contact person with detailed records on the Committees funds upon request.

v. The annual ISC accounts will be listed in the Annual ICOMOS audited balance sheet.

vi. Should CIF be dissolved, any assets or funds held in the ICOMOS accounts on its behalf may be attributed to the general ICOMOS budget.

12.7 The Treasurer or designated contact person shall draw up a budget and financial plan to be approved by CIF, and maintain an appropriate record of all financial transactions for the purpose of assisting the Accountant of ICOMOS in the preparation of the annual audited statement

13. Accountability

13.1 The Committee cannot make any agreement or carry out an act that could create a legally binding obligation for ICOMOS without the authorization of the Bureau of ICOMOS.

13.2 The Committee shall not use the ICOMOS name in relation to its activities or agreements unless authorised by the Bureau of ICOMOS

14. Language

The Committee will use English and French as working languages. Use of other languages (i.e. Spanish) will be encouraged.

15.  Secretariat

The Secretariat of the ISC will be located at ICOMOS International, 11 rue du Séminaire de Conflans, 94220 Charenton-le-Pont, France.

16. Dispute Settlement

16.1 Any dispute arising out of the interpretation of these By-Laws shall be resolved by way of Referral to the ICOMOS Scientific Council. There will also be a right of Appeal to the board of ICOMOS from a decision of the Scientific Council.

16.2 The Referral shall be governed by the ICOMOS Statutes, Rules of Procedure, the Eger-Xi’an Principles, the Malta Guidelines and the Ethical Principles provided always that: Nothing in these By-Laws shall be interpreted in any way that might be inconsistent with the realization of the aims of the Committee.

17. Amendment

17.1 Amendment of these By-laws shall be made by the voting of Expert Members designated by National Committees as voting members at a Meeting with proxies, and /or by postal and electronic ballot. All substantive By-Law revisions shall be submitted through the Scientific Council for the approval of the Board of ICOMOS.

17.2 Any agenda item for amendment of these By-Laws, which is to be discussed and resolved by the Committee, shall be submitted to all Expert Members, to the Scientific Council and the Board of ICOMOS at least ninety (90) days before the date of its discussion